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Named for the Greek words kakos, meaning “bad,” and xenizomenos, meaning “guest,” in reference to its presence in iron ores, which the phosphate content of the mineral degrades the quality of iron from the ore. Cacoxenite is an uncommon mineral in the broad sense, but is a common accessory in oxidized magnetite and limonite iron ore, and can also be found in iron and manganese bearing novaculites and in iron-rich sediment and soil. Localities for Cacoxenite are found in the Czech Republic, Germany, France, Ireland, Sweden, and the United States, among others. Orange, reddish orange, golden yellow, or brownish yellow acicular crystals in compact, concentric spherical to radial aggregates or coatings.

Ref. Handbook of Mineralogy, Anthony et al (1995) and MSA at http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/cacoxenite.pdf


The composition of the mineral is its namesake after the calcium (ca), iron (Latin: ferrum), and arsenic (ars) in the mineral’s chemical formula. Cafarsite is a rare mineral that is found in Switzerland in a few localities in Binn Valley in Wallis, in Italy at Devero Alp in Piedmont, and in Canada at the Hemlo gold deposits in the Thunder Bay district of Ontario. Cafarsite occurs at its type locality at Scherbadung on cleft faces in orthogneiss. Associated minerals at the type locality include asbecasite, gasparite-Ce, chernovite, and synchysite.

Ref. Handbook of Mineralogy, Anthony et al (1995) and MSA at http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/cafarsite.pdf


Named after Lazard Cahn, a mineral collector and dealer from Colorado, USA who first noted the mineral. Cahnite is a rare mineral that occurs at the type locality at Franklin, New Jersey, USA as a late stage mineral in pegmatites that cut the Franklin stratiform zinc deposit, and at an Italian locality with zeolites in leucitic lava rocks. Additional localities can be found in Namibia, Turkey, Russia, and Japan among only a couple others. Cahnite will fluoresce a pale yellow under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light.

Ref. Handbook of Mineralogy, Anthony et al (1995) and MSA at http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/cahnite.pdf


Named for the type locality at the type locality in the Stanislaus mine in Calaveras County in California, USA. Additional localities for this uncommon mineral include others in the USA, Mexico, Chile, Canada, Australia, Japan, Fiji, the Philippines, and Russia, among several others. Generally, Calaverite occurs in low-temperature hydrothermal deposits in veins, although it can occur in hydrothermal deposits of all temperatures. Associated minerals include altaite, coloradoite, krennerite, rickardite, other tellurides, pyrite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite, tennantite, sphalerite, stibnite, and other sulfides.

Ref. Handbook of Mineralogy, Anthony et al (1995) and MSA at http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/calaverite.pdf

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